This is a wonderful little book by P. G. Wodehouse, the first of his books I’ve read (but most likely very far from the last one). I don’t usually blog fiction, but this book was great enough for me to want to share a few quotes from the book here. If Wodehouse’ other books are as funny and entertaining as this one was, I know which fiction author I’ll be reading in the weeks to come. I am very partial in particular to the character Lord Emsworth.
Sample quotes below:
“owing to the pressure of other engagements, he unfortunately omitted to do any work, and, when the hour of parting arrived, he was peculiarly unfitted for any of the learned professions. Having, however, managed to obtain a sort of degree, enough to enable him to call himself a Bachelor of Arts, and realizing that you can fool some of the people some of the time, he applied for and secured a series of private tutorships.”
“Tell me, Adams, have I eaten my cheese?’
‘Not yet, your lordship. I was about to send the waiter for it.’
‘Never mind. Tell him to bring the bill instead. I remember that I have an appointment. I must not be late.’
‘Shall I take the fork, your lordship?’
‘Your lordship has inadvertently put a fork in your coat pocket.’
Lord Emsworth felt in the pocket indicated, and with the air of an inexpert conjurer whose trick has succeeded contrary to his expectations produced a silver-plated fork. He regarded it with surprise; then he looked wonderingly at Adams.
‘Adams, I’m getting absent-minded. Have you ever noticed any traces of absent-mindedness in me before?’
‘Oh, no, your lordship.'”
“The cab drew up before a house gay with flowered window-boxes. Lord Emsworth paid the driver, and stood on the side-walk looking up at this cheerful house, trying to remember why on earth he had told the man to drive there.”
“There is every kind of restaurant in London, from the restaurant which makes you fancy you are in Paris to the restaurant which makes you wish you were.”
“Blandings Castle was one of the more important of England’s show-places, and Beach, accordingly, had acquired a dignified inertia which almost qualified him for inclusion in the vegetable kingdom.”
“One of Mr. Peters’ most painful memories was of a two weeks’ visit which he had once paid to Mr William Muldoon at his celebrated health-restoring establishment at White Plains in the State of New York. He had been persuaded to go there by a brother-millionaire whom till then he had always regarded as a friend.”
“In this book we present several novel concepts in cooperative game theory, but from a computer scientist’s point of view. Especially, we will look at a type of games called non-transferable utility games. […] In this book, we extend the classic stability concept of the non-transferable utility core by proposing new belief-based stability criteria under uncertainty, and illustrate how the new concept can be used to analyse the stability of a new type of belief-based coalition formation game. Mechanisms for reaching solutions of the new stable criteria are proposed and some real life application examples are studied. […] In Chapter 1, we first provide an introduction of topics in game theory that are relevant to the concepts discussed in this book. In Chapter 2, we review some relevant works from the literature, especially in cooperative game theory and multi-agent coalition formation problems. In Chapter 3, we discuss the effect of uncertainty in the agent’s beliefs on the stability of the games. A rule-based approach is adopted and the concepts of strong core and weak core are introduced. We also discuss the effect of precision of the beliefs on the stability of the coalitions. In Chapter 4, we introduce private beliefs in non-transferable utility (NTU) games, so that the preferences of the agents are no longer common knowledge. The impact of belief accuracy on stability is also examined. In Chapter 5, we study an application of the proposed belief-based stability concept, namely the buyer coalition problem, and we see how the proposed concept can be used in the evaluation of this multi-agent coalition formation problem. In Chapter 6, we combine the works of earlier chapters and produce a complete picture of the introduced concepts: non-transferable utility games with private beliefs and uncertainty. We conclude this book in Chapter 7.”
The above quote is from the preface of the book, which I finished yesterday. It deals with some issues I was slightly annoyed about not being covered in a previous micro course; my main problem being that it seemed to me back then that the question of belief accuracy and the role of this variable was not properly addressed in the models we looked at (‘people can have mistaken beliefs, and it seems obvious that the ways in which they’re wrong can affect which solutions are eventually reached’). The book makes the point that if you look at coalition formation in a context where it is not reasonable to assume that information is shared among coalition partners (because it is in the interest of the participants to keep their information/preferences/willingness to pay private), then the beliefs of the potential coalition partners may play a major role in determining which coalitions are feasible and which are ruled out. A key point is that in the model context explored by the authors, inaccurate beliefs of agents will expand the number of potential coalitions which are available, although coalition options ruled out by accurate beliefs are less stable than ones which are not. They do not discuss the fact that this feature is unquestionably a result of implicit assumptions made along the way which may not be true, and that inaccurate beliefs may also in some contexts conceivably lead to lower solution support in general (e.g. through variables such as disagreement, or, to think more in terms of concepts specifically included in their model framework, higher general instability of solutions which can feasibly be reached, making agents less likely to explore the option of participating in coalitions in the first place due to the lower payoffs associated with the available coalitions likely to be reached – dynamics such as these are not included in the coverage). I decided early on to not blog the stuff in this book in major detail because it’s not the kind of book where this makes sense to do (in my opinion), but if you’re curious about how they proceed, they talk quite a bit about the (classical) Core and discuss why this is not an appropriate solution concept to apply in the contexts they explore, and they then proceed to come up with new and better solution criteria, developed with the aid of some new variables and definitions along the way, in order to end up with some better solution concepts, their so-called ‘belief-based cores’, which are perhaps best thought of as extensions of the classical core concept. I should perhaps point out, as this may not be completely clear, that the beliefs they talk about deal both with the ‘state of nature’ (which in part of the coverage is assumed to be basically unobservable) and the preferences of agents involved.
If you want a sort of bigger picture idea of what this book is about, I should point out that in general you have two major sub-fields of game theory, dealing with cooperative and non-cooperative games respectively. Within the sub-field of cooperative games, a distinction is made between games and settings where utilities are transferable, and games/settings where they are not. This book belongs in the latter category; it deals with cooperative games in which utilities are non-transferable. The authors in the beginning make a big deal out of the distinction between whether or not utilities are transferable, and claim that the assumption that they’re not is the more plausible one; whereas they do have a point, I however also actually think the non-transferability assumption might in some of the specific examples included in the book be a borderline questionable assumption. To give an example, the non-transferability assumption seems in one context to imply that all potential coalition partners have the same amount of bargaining power. This assumption is plausible in some contexts, but wildly implausible in others (and I’m not sure the authors would agree with me about which contexts would belong to which category).
The professor teaching the most recent course in micro I took had a background in computer science, rather than economics – he was also Asian, but this perhaps goes without saying. This book is supposedly a computer science book, and they argue in the introduction that: “instead of looking at human beings, we study the problem from an intelligent software agent’s perspective.” However I don’t think a single one of the examples included in the book would be an example you could not also have found in a classic micro text, and it’s really hard to tell in many parts of the coverage that the authors aren’t economists with a background in micro – there seems to be quite a bit of field overlap here (this field overlap incidentally extends to areas of economics besides micro, is my impression; one econometrics TA I had, teaching the programming part of the course, was also a CS major). In the book they talk a bit about coalition formation mechanisms and approaches, such as propose-and-evaluate mechanisms and auction approaches, and they also touch briefly upon stuff like mechanism design. They state in the description that: “The book is intended for graduate students, engineers, and researchers in the field of artificial intelligence and computer science.” I think it’s really weird that they don’t include (micro-)economists as well, because this stuff is obviously quite close to/potentially relevant to the kind of work some of these people are working on.
There are a lot of definitions, theorems, and proofs in this book, and as usual when doing work on game theory you need to think very carefully about the stuff they cover to be able to follow it, but I actually found it reasonably accessible – the book is not terribly difficult to read. Though I would probably advise you against reading the book if you have not at least read an intro text on game theory. Although as already mentioned the book deals with an analytical context in which utilities are non-transferable, it should be pointed out that this assumption is sort of implicit in the coverage, in the sense that the authors don’t really deal with utility functions at all; the book only deals with preference relations, not utility functions, so it probably helps to be familiar with this type of analysis (e.g. by having studied (solved some problems) dealing with the kind of stuff included in the coverage in chapter 1 of Mas-Colell).
Part of the reason why I gave the book only two stars is that the authors are Chinese and their English is terrible. Another reason is that as is usually the case in game theory, these guys spend a lot of time and effort being very careful to define their terms and make correct inferences from the assumptions they make – but they don’t really end up saying very much.
i. Invasion of Poland. I recently realized I had no idea e.g. how long it took for the Germans and Soviets to defeat Poland during WW2 (the answer is 1 month and five days). The Germans attacked more than two weeks before the Soviets did. The article has lots of links, like most articles about such topics on wikipedia. Incidentally the question of why France and Britain applied a double standard and only declared war on Germany, and not the Soviet Union, is discussed in much detail in the links provided by u/OldWorldGlory here.
ii. Huaynaputina. From the article:
“A few days before the eruption, someone reported booming noise from the volcano and fog-like gas being emitted from its crater. The locals scrambled to appease the volcano, preparing girls, pets, and flowers for sacrifice.”
This makes sense – what else would one do in a situation like that? Finding a few virgins, dogs and flowers seems like the sensible approach – yes, you have to love humans and how they always react in sensible ways to such crises.
I’m not really sure the rest of the article is really all that interesting, but I found the above sentence both amusing and depressing enough to link to it here.
iii. Albert Pierrepoint. This guy killed hundreds of people.
On the other hand people were fine with it – it was his job. Well, sort of, this is actually slightly complicated. (“Pierrepoint was often dubbed the Official Executioner, despite there being no such job or title”).
Anyway this article is clearly the story of a guy who achieved his childhood dream – though unlike other children, he did not dream of becoming a fireman or a pilot, but rather of becoming the Official Executioner of the country. I’m currently thinking of using Pierrepoint as the main character in the motivational story I plan to tell my nephew when he’s a bit older.
iv. Second Crusade (featured). Considering how many different ‘states’ and ‘kingdoms’ were involved, a surprisingly small amount of people were actually fighting; the article notes that “[t]here were perhaps 50,000 troops in total” on the Christian side when the attack on Damascus was initiated. It wasn’t enough, as the outcome of the crusade was a decisive Muslim victory in the ‘Holy Land’ (Middle East).
v. 0.999… (featured). This thing is equal to one, but it can sometimes be really hard to get even very smart people to accept this fact. Lots of details and some proofs presented in the article.
vi. Shapley–Folkman lemma (‘good article’ – but also a somewhat technical article).
vii. Multituberculata. This article is not that special, but I add it here also because I think it ought to be and I’m actually sort of angry that it’s not; sometimes the coverage provided on wikipedia simply strikes me as grossly unfair, even if this is perhaps a slightly odd way to think about stuff. As pointed out in the article (Agustí points this out in his book as well), “The multituberculates existed for about 120 million years, and are often considered the most successful, diversified, and long-lasting mammals in natural history.” Yet notice how much (/little) coverage the article provides. Now compare the article with this article, or this.
I wasn’t quite sure how to rate the book, but I ended up at four stars on goodreads. The main thing holding me back from giving it a higher rating is that the book is actually quite hard to read and there’s a lot of talk about teeth; one general point I learned from this book is that the teeth animals who lived in the past have left behind for us to find are sometimes really useful, because they can help us to make/support various inferences about other things, from animal behaviours to climatic developments. As for the ‘hard to read’-part, I (mostly) don’t blame the author for this because a book like this would have to be a bit hard to read to provide the level of coverage that is provided; that’s part of why I give it four stars in spite of this. If you have a look at the links in the first post, you’ll notice the many Latin names. You’ll find a lot of those in the text as well. This is perfectly natural as there were a lot of e.g. horse-like and rhino-like species living in the past and you need to be clear about which one of them you’re talking about now because they were all different, lived in different time periods, etc. For obvious reasons the book has a lot of talk about species/genera with no corresponding ‘familiar/popular’ names (like ‘cat’ or ‘dog’), and you need to keep track of the Latin names to make sense of the stuff; as well as keeping track of the various other Latin terms used e.g. in osteometry. So you’ll encounter some passages where there’s some talk about the differences between two groups whose names look pretty similar, and you’re told about how one group had two teeth which were a bit longer than they were in the other group and the teeth also looked slightly different (and you’ll be told exactly which teeth we’re talking about, described in a language you’d probably have to be a dentist to understand without looking up a lot of stuff along the way). Problems keeping track of the animals/groups encountered also stem from the fact that whereas some species encountered in the book do have modern counterparts, others don’t. The coverage helps you to figure out which ecological niche which group may have inhabited, but if you’re completely unfamiliar with the field of ecology I’m not sure how easy it is to get into this mindset. The text does provide some help navigating this weird landscape of the past, and the many fascinating illustrations in the book make it easier to visualize what the animals encountered along the way might have looked like, but reading the book takes some work.
That said, it’s totally worth it because this stuff’s just plain fascinating! The book isn’t quite ‘up there’ with Herrera et al. (it reminded me a bit more of van der Geer et al., not only because of the slight coverage overlap), but some of the stuff in there’s pretty damn awesome – and it’s stuff you ought to know, because it’ll probably change how you think about the world. The really neat thing about reading a book like this is that it exposes a lot of unwarranted assumptions you’ve been making without knowing it, about what the past used to be like. I’m almost certain anyone reading a book like this will encounter ideas which are very surprising to them. We look at the world through the eyes of the present, and it can be difficult to imagine just how many things used to be different. Vague and tentative ideas you might have had about how the world used to look like and how it used to work can through reading books like this one be replaced with a much more clear, and much better supported, picture of the past. Even though there’s still a lot of stuff we don’t know, and will never know. I could mention almost countless examples of things I was very surprised to learn while reading this book, and I’m sure many people reading the book would encounter even more of these, as I actually was somewhat familiar with parts of the related literature already before reading the book.
I’ve added a few sample quotes and observations from the book below.
“Europe, although just an appendage of the Eurasian supercontinent, acted during most of its history as a crossroad where Asian, African, and American faunas passed one another, throughout successive dispersal and extinction events. But these events did not happen in an isolated context, since they were the response to climatic and environmental events of a higher order. Thus this book pays special attention to the abundant literature that for the past few decades has dedicated itself to the climatic evolution of our planet.”
“A common scenario tends to posit the early evolutionary radiation of placental mammals as occurring only after the extinction of the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous period. The same scenario assumes a sudden explosion of forms immediately after the End Cretaceous Mass Extinction, filling the vacancies left by the vanished reptilian faunas. But a close inspection of the first epoch of the Cenozoic provides quite a different picture: the “explosion” began well before the end of the Cretaceous period and was not sudden, but lasted millions of years throughout the first division of the Cenozoic era, the Paleocene epoch. […] our knowledge of this remote time of mammalian evolution is much more obscure and incomplete than our understanding of the other periods of the Cenozoic. […] compared with our present world, and in contrast to the succeeding epochs, the Paleocene appears to us as a strange time, in which the present orders of mammals were absent or can hardly be distinguished: no rodents, no perissodactyls, no artiodactyls, bizarre noncarnivorous carnivorans. […] although the Paleocene was mammalian in character, we do not recognize it as a clear part of our own world; it looks more like an impoverished extension of the late Cretaceous world than the seed of the present Age of Mammals.”
“The diatrymas were human-size — up to 2 m tall — ground-running birds that inhabited the terrestrial ecosystems of Europe and North America in the Paleocene and the early to middle Eocene […] Besides the large diatrymas, a large variety of crocodiles — mainly terrestrial and amphibious eusuchian crocodiles — populated the marshes of the Paleocene rainforests. […] The high diversification of the crocodile fauna throughout the Paleocene and Eocene represents a significant ecological datum, since crocodiles do not tolerate temperatures below 10 to 15°C (exceptionally, they could survive in temperatures of about 5 or 6°C). Their existence in Europe indicates that during the first part of the Cenozoic the average temperature of the coldest month never fell below these values and that these mild conditions persisted at least until the middle Miocene.”
“At the end of the Paleocene, approximately 55.5 million years ago, there was a sudden, short-term warming known as the Latest Paleocene Thermal Maximum. Over a period of tens of thousands of years or less, the temperature of all the oceans increased by around 4°C. This was the highest warming during the entire Cenozoic, reaching global mean temperatures of around 20°C. There is some evidence that the Latest Paleocene Thermal Maximum resulted from a sudden increase in atmospheric CO2. Intense volcanic activity developed at the Paleocene–Eocene boundary, associated with the rifting process in the North Atlantic and the opening of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. […] According to some analyses, atmospheric CO2 during the early Eocene may have been eight times its present concentration. […] The high temperatures and increasing humidity favored the extension of tropical rainforests over the middle and higher latitudes, as far north as Ellesmere Island, now in the Canadian arctic north. There, an abundant fauna — including crocodiles, monitor lizards, primates, rodents, multituberculates, early perissodactyls, and the pantodont Coryphodon — and a flora composed of tropical elements indicates the extension of the forests as far north as 78 degrees north latitude. […] The global oceanic level at the beginning of the Eocene was high, and extensive areas of Eurasia were still under the sea. In this context, Europe consisted of a number of emerged islands forming a kind of archipelago. A central European island consisted of parts of present-day England, France, and Germany, although it was placed in a much more southerly position, approximately at the present latitude of Naples. […] To the east, the growing Mediterranean opened into a wide sea, since the landmasses of Turkey, Iraq, and Iran were still below sea level. To the east of the Urals, the Turgai Strait still connected the warm waters of the Tethys Sea with the Polar Sea. […] Despite the opening of the Greenland-Norwegian Sea, Europe and North America were still connected during most of the early and middle Eocene across two main land bridges […] the De Geer Corridor [and] the Thule Bridge […] these corridors must have been effective, since the European fossil record shows a massive entry of American elements […] The ischyromyid and ailuravid rodents, as well as the miacid carnivores, were among the oldest representatives of the modern orders of mammals to appear in Europe during the early Eocene. However, they were not the only ones, since the “modernization” of the mammalian communities at this time went even further, and groups such as the first true primates, bats (Chiroptera), flying lemurs (Dermoptera), and oddtoed (Perissodactyla) and even-toed (Artiodactyla) ungulates entered onto the scene, in both Europe and North America.”
“Although it was the first member of the horse lineage, Pliolophus certainly did not look like a horse. As classically stated, it had the dimensions of a medium dog (“a fox-terrier”), bearing four hooves on the front legs and three on the hind legs. […] the first rhino-related forms included Hyrachius, a small rhino about the size of a wolf that during the Eocene inhabited a wide geographic range, from North America to Europe and Asia.” (Yep, in case you didn’t know Europe had rhinos for millions and millions of years…) “The artiodactyls are among the most successful orders of mammals, having diversified in the past 10 million years into a wide array of families, subfamilies, tribes, and genera all around the world, including pigs, peccaries, hippos, chevrotains, camels, giraffes, deer, antelopes, gazelles, goats, and cattle. They are easily distinguished from the perissodactyls because each extremity is supported on the two central toes, instead of on the middle strengthened toe. […] The oldest member of the order is Diacodexis, […] a rabbit-size ungulate”
“Although the number of middle Eocene localities in Europe is quite restricted, we have excellent knowledge of the terrestrial communities of this time thanks to the extraordinary fossiliferous site of Messel, Germany. […] several specimens from Messel retain in their gut their last meal, providing a rare opportunity for testing the teeth-inferred dietary requirements of a number of extinct mammalian groups. […] A dense canopy forest surrounded Messel lake, formed of several tropical and paratropical taxa that today live in Southeast Asia”.
“At the end of the middle Eocene, things began to change in the European archipelago. Several late Paleocene and early Eocene survivors had become extinct […] The last part of the middle Eocene saw a clear change in the structure of the herbivore community as specialized browsing herbivores […] replaced the small to medium-size omnivorous/ frugivorous archaic ungulates of the early Eocene and became the dominant species. […] These changes among the mammalian faunas were most probably a response to the major tectonic transformations occurring at that time and the associated environmental changes. During the middle Eocene, the Indian plate collided with Asia, closing the Tethys Sea north of India. The collision of India and the compression between Africa and Europe formed an active alpine mountain belt along the southern border of Eurasia. In the western Mediterranean, strong compression occurred during the late Eocene, […] leading to the final emergence of the Pyrenees. To the south of the Pyrenees, the sea branch between the Iberian plate and Europe retreated”
“The European terrestrial ecosystems at the end of the Eocene were quite different from those inherited from the Paleocene, which were dominated by archaic, unspecialized groups. In contrast, a diversified fauna of specialized small and large browsing herbivores […] characterized the late Eocene. From our perspective, they looked much more “modern” than those of the early and early-middle Eocene and perfectly adapted to the new late Eocene environmental conditions characterized by the spread of more open habitats.”
“during the Eocene […] Australia and South America were still attached to Antarctica, as the last remnants of the ancient Gondwanan supercontinent. Today’s circumpolar current did not yet exist, and the equatorial South Atlantic and South Pacific waters went closer to the Antarctic coasts, thus transporting heat from the low latitudes to the high southern latitudes. However, this changed during the late Eocene, when a rifting process began to separate Australia from Antarctica. At the beginning of the Oligocene, between 34 and 33 million years ago, the spread between the two continents was large enough to allow a first phase of circumpolar circulation, which restricted the thermal exchange between the low-latitude equatorial waters and the Antarctic waters. A sudden and massive cooling took place, and mean global temperatures fell by about 5°C. […] During a few hundred thousand years (the estimated duration of this early Oligocene glacial episode), the ice sheets expanded and covered extensive areas of Antarctica, particularly in its western regions. […] The onset of Antarctic glaciation and the growing of the ice sheets in western Antarctica provoked an important global sea-level lowering of about 30 m. Several shallow epicontinental seas became continental areas, including those that surrounded the European Archipelago. The Turgai Strait, which during millions of years had isolated the European lands from Asia, vanished and opened a migration pathway for Asian and American mammals to the west. […] The tectonic movements led to the final split of the Tethys Sea into two main seas, the Mediterranean Sea to the south and the Paratethys Sea, the latter covering the formerly open ocean areas of central and eastern Europe. […] After the retreat of the Turgai Strait and the emergence of the Paratethys province, the European Archipelago ceased to exist, and Europe approached its present configuration. The ancient barriers that had prevented Asian faunas from settling in this continental area no longer existed, and a wave of new immigrants entered from the east. This coincided with the trend toward more temperate conditions and the spread of open environments initiated during the late Eocene. Consequently, most of the species that had characterized the middle and late Eocene declined or became completely extinct, replaced by herds of Asian newcomers.”
In the post I’ll cover a few more chapters from the book. Let’s start with some observations from the chapter about relationship satisfaction. When you compare distressed couples with satisfied couples, distressed couples tend to show a range of dysfunctional communicative behaviours which include higher levels of criticism and complaining, hostility, defensiveness and disengagement, and not responding to the partner. “With regard to sequences of behavior, the “signature” of dissatisfied couples is the existence of reciprocated negative behavior that tends to escalate in intensity.” Attempts to repair the relationship usually employ meta-communication – e.g. “You’re not listening to me” – and these are typically delivered with negative affect (e.g. anger). The other party responds to the negative affect and reciprocates; on the other hand in satisfied couples the parties are usually more responsive to the repair attempts. The demand-withdrawal interaction pattern is another commonly observed interaction pattern in distressed couples which I’ve talked about before in my coverage of this book; this pattern involves one party pressuring the other with demands, complaints and criticism, and the other party withdrawing and reacting with defensiveness and passive inaction. An argument can be made that conflict interaction patterns may be relatively stable over time; for example researchers have looked at variables such as active listening, anger, and negative affect reciprocity in newly-weds and used these variables to successfully predict marital satisfaction and stability (presumably relationship dissolution risk, but this is not explicit in the text) 6 years later.
The chapter notes that research on cognitions in the relationship context has looked at the presence of unrealistic relationship beliefs early on in the relationship and used these unrealistic beliefs to predict relationship outcomes/dynamics later; it turns out that unrealistic relationship beliefs predict relationship dissatisfaction and observed couple behaviours. Other studies have instead looked at what they in the chapter term ‘functional’ unrealistic beliefs. I can’t recall if I’ve talked about this stuff before here in my coverage, but I haven’t talked about this chapter before anyway and the chapter notes that such studies have found e.g. that happy couples view their partners in a more positive light than the partners view themselves, and that “egocentrically assuming similarities between partner and self that do not exist is characteristic of being in a satisfying relationship.” The chapter notes that it has been known for a long time that happy couples tend to overestimate the positive qualities and underestimate the negative qualities of their partners, whereas unhappy couples tend to do the opposite. As mentioned earlier in the coverage, “happy spouses [tend to] make egocentric attributions for negative relationships events (e.g., arguments) but partner-centric attributions for positive relationships events”. They observe in the chapter that “[m]ore work has been conducted on attributions in close relationships than on any other cognitive variable. Evidence for an association between attribution and relationship satisfaction is overwhelming, making it possibly the most robust, replicable phenomenon in the study of close relationships”. Attributions affect many dimensions and one perhaps surprising variable involved is our memories. They mention a 5-year longitudinal study of dating couples in the chapter, which found that even though the participants’ self-reports of love of their partner declined during the year every year in the study, participants at the end of the year still consistently reported that they loved their partner more than they had the year before. People are funny sometimes.
The next chapter in the book deals with the topic of ‘romantic love’. I found this part quite interesting:
“Data from animal studies […] support the hypothesis that elevated activities of central dopamine play a primary role in attraction in mammalian species. In rats, blocking the activities of dopamine diminishes specific proceptive behaviors, including hopping and darting […]. Further, when a female lab-raised prairie vole is mated with a male, she forms a distinct preference for this partner. This preference is associated with a 50% increase of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens […] when a dopamine antagonist is injected directly into the nucleus accumbens, females no longer prefer [the] partner and when a female is injected with a dopamine agonist, she begins to prefer a conspecific who is present at the time of infusion, even if the female has not mated with this male […] In sum, the considerable data on mate preference in mammalian (and avian) species, and the association of this mate preference with subcortical dopaminergic pathways in human and animal studies suggest that attraction in mammals (and its human counterpart, romantic love) is a specific biobehavioral brain system; that it is associated with at least one specific neurotransmitter, dopamine; and that this brain system evolved to facilitate a specific reproductive function: mate preference and pursuit of this preferred mating partner.”
When looking at what makes a person likeable, people are usually found to like people who are similar to themselves – “perceived shared attitudes plays a highly consistent role across many experiments” – “but when other variables are also free to vary, the effect sizes are often relatively small”, and the authors note that reduced attraction to perceived dissimilars may play a big role here; maybe it doesn’t matter so much whether or not someone is particularly similar to yourself, and what really matters is that the individual is not ‘too different’. They note that “perceived similarity is much more important than actual similarity”. As for the mere-exposure effect, the authors note that the main effect of the variable is through providing an opportunity for interaction/relationship formation and that there is “little direct evidence for it playing much of a direct role in falling in love”. I found the research included on the ‘arousal at time of meeting the partner’-variable interesting. A psychological experiment from the 70es involving males meeting up with a female confederate on a bridge indicated that when interactions took place on a shaky suspension bridge, the males were more attracted to good-looking female confederates than they were when the two met up on a solid, low bridge. Later studies have since then demonstrated similar effects in a variety of contexts involving positive and negative sources of arousal. I guess if you don’t know the details of the followup-studies and you’re a woman who’ve found a potential partner you’d like to ask out, you might consider suggesting the first date take place on a (poorly constructed?) suspension bridge (or near one)..
The next chapter deals with the topic of commitment. Various conceptual models which provide different ways to think about commitment are presented early in the chapter, but I won’t really talk about that part of the coverage. The first observation I thought worth including here is that if you want to understand topics like abusive relationships, you need to understand stuff like commitment and related topics; it’s not very helpful to explain abuse as the result of the irrationality and stupidity of the victims, and the authors argue that the early literature on such topics were too focused on e.g. relationship satisfaction, which made it hard to understand what was going on. When people started including variables such as the investments (time, money, etc.) people had put into the relationship and available alternatives, some other ways to think about these things presented themselves – as they put it in the chapter, “Once researchers recognized the importance of commitment, it became evident that abuse victims may remain in their relationships because they are trapped – because they have poor alternatives (especially economic alternatives; e.g., limited financial resources, poor employment options) or because important investments bind them to their partners (e.g., young children, joint home ownership). […] recent empirical work supports the claim that persistence in abusive relationships is at least partially attributable to poor alternatives and high investments”.
Researchers in the field have argued that the reason why high commitment levels tend to keep relationships together is because they promote adaptive relationship-relevant acts, termed relationship maintenance phenomena. The important point is of course that you need a mechanism to explain why high commitment leads to different outcomes (it does), and that you need to look at behaviours. Although behaviours are important, so are cognitions (once again); to give a few examples, it’s been shown that people strongly committed to a relationship tend to shield themselves from attractive alternative partners by cognitively derogating tempting alternatives, and that people with strong commitment to a relationship react to periods of doubt or uncertainty by cognitively enhancing their partners and relationships. One behavioural mechanism supporting relationship persistence is that people with strong commitment are inclined to accommodate rather than retaliate when a partner engages in potentially destructive behaviours (instead of yelling when the partner is rude, the other party disengages and asks if s/he had a bad day at work (I’m not sure I’d have termed this type of behaviour ‘accommodation’, but that’s how they frame it in the chapter – as people might notice, this type of behaviour parallels the ‘bad behaviour is (explained away as) situational, good behaviour is personality’-cognitive angle mentioned multiple times during my coverage of the book already)). Research has found that committed people are more likely to sacrifice their personal interests to promote the interests of the partner and relationship (I’m sure some would argue this is/ought to be part of the construct), and that they’re more likely to forgive if confronted with acts of betrayal.
A few quotes related to the above: “Maintenance acts such as accommodation and sacrifice are beneficial not only because they prevent the escalation of conflict and yield better immediate outcomes, but also because they help each partner recognize the extent of the other’s commitment. For this reason, the situations that call forth maintenance acts […] have been termed diagnostic situations […] Such situations are “diagnostic” in that it is possible to discern the strength of another’s commitment only in situations wherein the behavior that benefits a relationship is at odds with the behavior that would benefit the individual […] Why are diagnostic situations important? Confidence in a partner’s commitment is reflected in trust, defined as the strength of one’s conviction that the partner will be responsive to one’s needs […] As such, one person’s trust in the other is a rough gauge of the strength of the other’s commitment […] As people become increasingly trusting, they become more willing to place themselves in vulnerable positions relative to the partner by becoming increasingly dependent – that is, they not only become more satisfied with the relationship, but are also more willing to drive away or derogate alternative partners (i.e., burn their bridges) and invest in the relationship in material and non-material ways […] increasing dependence yields strengthened commitment, which in turn causes […] a variety of prosocial maintenance acts”. Of course for a variety of reasons a desirable cycle like that may be interrupted or fail to materialize, and when things are not going well the cognitive mechanisms which usually help support relationship maintenance will instead support relationship dissolution – an unrealistically favourable view of the partner will e.g. be replaced by an unrealistically favourable view of the available alternatives. Relationship satisfaction is closely linked to commitment, and one thing to note here is that fluctuations in this variable have been shown to predict breakups independent of the level of relationship satisfaction. The authors note in the last part of the chapter that it’s likely that not all types of commitment are equal (e.g. ‘enthusiastic vs. moral’) and that different types of commitment may have different effects on e.g. the risk of relationship dissolution, but it doesn’t seem like a lot of research had been done on this stuff when the book was published – they don’t really go into the details.
I more or less discontinued these types of posts during the last year, but I figured that given how infrequently I post these days I might as well revive these. I’m sure I’ve included some of the pieces below in previous posts, but I don’t really care – if a couple of people who read along when I first posted them still remember those pieces from my previous coverage, they probably liked them anyway.
I’m currently reading this book. It’s quite nice so far, though the title is slightly misleading (I’ve read 82 pages so far and I’ve yet to come across any mammoths, sabertooths or hominids…). I mentioned yesterday that I wanted to cover the systems analysis text in more detail today, but that turned out to be really difficult to do without actually rewriting the book (or at the very least quoting very extensively), something I really don’t want to do. I decided to cover this book instead, though it’s admittedly slightly ‘lazy coverage’. Below I have added some links to stuff he talks about in the book. It’s the sort of book which is reasonably easy to blog, so I’m quite sure I’ll add more detail and context later, especially considering how most people presumably know far more (…okay, well, more) about the lives of the dinosaurs than they do about the lives of their much more recent ancestors, which lived during the Cenozoic.
The book frequently has more information about a given species/genus than does wikipedia’s corresponding article (and there’s stuff in here which wikipedia does not have articles about at all…), and/but I’ve tried to avoid linking to stubs below. Some articles below have decent coverage, but these are in general topics not well covered on wikipedia – I don’t think there’s a single featured article among the articles included. Even so, it’s probably worth having a look at some of the articles below if you’re curious to know which kind of stuff’s covered in this book. Aside from the links, I decided to also include a few pictures from the articles.
“This book was originally developed alongside the lecture Systems Analysis at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zürich, on the basis of lecture notes developed over 12 years. The lecture, together with others on analysis, differential equations and linear algebra, belongs to the basic mathematical knowledge imparted on students of environmental sciences and other related areas at ETH Zürich. […] The book aims to be more than a mathematical treatise on the analysis and modeling of natural systems, yet a certain set of basic mathematical skills are still necessary. We will use linear differential equations, vector and matrix calculus, linear algebra, and even take a glimpse at nonlinear and partial differential equations. Most of the mathematical methods used are covered in the appendices. Their treatment there is brief however, and without proofs. Therefore it will not replace a good mathematics textbook for someone who has not encountered this level of math before. […] The book is firmly rooted in the algebraic formulation of mathematical models, their analytical solution, or — if solutions are too complex or do not exist — in a thorough discussion of the anticipated model properties.”
I finished the book yesterday – here’s my goodreads review (note that the first link in this post was not to the goodreads profile of the book for the reason that goodreads has listed the book under the wrong title). I’ve never read a book about ‘systems analysis’ before, but as I also mention in the goodreads review it turned out that much of this stuff was stuff I’d seen before. There are 8 chapters in the book. Chapter one is a brief introductory chapter, the second chapter contains a short overview of mathematical models (static models, dynamic models, discrete and continuous time models, stochastic models…), the third chapter is a brief chapter about static models (the rest of the book is about dynamic models, but they want you to at least know the difference), the fourth chapter deals with linear (differential equation) models with one variable, chapter 5 extends the analysis to linear models with several variables, chapter 6 is about non-linear models (covers e.g. the Lotka-Volterra model (of course) and the Holling-Tanner model (both were covered in Ecological Dynamics, in much more detail)), chapter 7 deals briefly with time-discrete models and how they are different from continuous-time models (I liked Gurney and Nisbet’s coverage of this stuff a lot better, as that book had a lot more details about these things) and chapter 8 concludes with models including both a time- and a space-dimension, which leads to coverage of concepts such as mixing and transformation, advection, diffusion and exchange in a model context.
How to derive solutions to various types of differential equations, how to calculate eigenvalues and what these tell you about the model dynamics (and how to deal with them when they’re imaginary), phase diagrams/phase planes and topographical maps of system dynamics, fixed points/steady states and their properties, what’s an attractor?, what’s hysteresis and in which model contexts might this phenomenon be present?, the difference between homogeneous and non-homogeneous differential equations and between first order- and higher-order differential equations, which role do the initial conditions play in various contexts?, etc. – it’s this kind of book. Applications included in the book are varied; some of the examples are (as already mentioned) derived from the field of ecology/mathematical biology (there are also e.g. models of phosphate distribution/dynamics in lakes and models of fish population dynamics), others are from chemistry (e.g. models dealing with gas exchange – Fick’s laws of diffusion are e.g. covered in the book, and they also talk about e.g. Henry’s law), physics (e.g. the harmonic oscillator, the Lorenz model) – there are even a few examples from economics (e.g. dealing with interest rates). As they put it in the introduction, “Although most of the examples used here are drawn from the environmental sciences, this book is not an introduction to the theory of aquatic or terrestrial environmental systems. Rather, a key goal of the book is to demonstrate the virtually limitless practical potential of the methods presented.” I’m not sure if they succeeded, but it’s certainly clear from the coverage that you can use the tools they cover in a lot of different contexts.
I’m not quite sure how much mathematics you’ll need to know in order to read and understand this book on your own. In the coverage they seem to me to assume some familiarity with linear algebra, multi-variable calculus, complex analysis (/related trigonometry) (perhaps also basic combinatorics – for example factorials are included without comments about how they work). You should probably take the authors at their words when they say above that the book “will not replace a good mathematics textbook for someone who has not encountered this level of math before”. A related observation is also that regardless of whether you’ve seen this sort of stuff before or not, this is probably not the sort of book you’ll be able to read in a day or two.
I think I’ll try to cover the book in more detail (with much more specific coverage of some main points) tomorrow.
It’s been quite a while since the last time I posted a ‘here’s some interesting stuff I’ve found online’-post, so I’ll do that now even though I actually don’t spend much time randomly looking around for interesting stuff online these days. I added some wikipedia links I’d saved for a ‘wikipedia articles of interest’-post because it usually takes quite a bit of time to write a standard wikipedia post (as it takes time to figure out what to include and what not to include in the coverage) and I figured that if I didn’t add those links here I’d never get around to blogging them.
iii. I found this article about the so-called “Einstellung” effect in chess interesting. I’m however not sure how important this stuff really is. I don’t think it’s sub-optimal for a player to spend a significant amount of time in positions like the ones they analyzed on ideas that don’t work, because usually you’ll only have to spot one idea that does to win the game. It’s obvious that one can argue people spend ‘too much’ time looking for a winning combination in positions where by design no winning combinations exist, but the fact of the matter is that in positions where ‘familiar patterns’ pop up winning resources often do exist, and you don’t win games by overlooking those or by failing to spend time looking for them; occasional suboptimal moves in some contexts may be a reasonable price to pay for increasing your likelihood of finding/playing the best/winning moves when those do exist. Here’s a slightly related link dealing with the question of the potential number of games/moves in chess. Here’s a good wiki article about pawn structures, and here’s one about swindles in chess. I incidentally very recently became a member of the ICC, and I’m frankly impressed with the player pool – which is huge and includes some really strong players (players like Morozevich and Tomashevsky seem to play there regularly). Since I started out on the site I’ve already beaten 3 IMs in bullet and lost a game against Islandic GM Henrik Danielsen. The IMs I’ve beaten were far from the strongest players in the player pool, but in my experience you don’t get to play titled players nearly as often as that on other sites if you’re at my level.
v. You may already have seen this one, but in case you have not: A Philosopher Walks Into A Coffee Shop. More than one of these made me laugh out loud. If you like the post you should take a look at the comments as well, there are some brilliant ones there as well.
vi. Amdahl’s law.
vii. Eigendecomposition of a matrix. On a related note I’m currently reading Imboden and Pfenninger’s Introduction to Systems Analysis (which goodreads for some reason has listed under a wrong title, as the goodreads book title is really the subtitle of the book), and today I had a look at the wiki article on Jacobian matrices and determinants for that reason (the book is about as technical as you’d expect from a book with a title like that).
Here’s my first post about the book. In this post I’ll cover two more of the individual systems chapters – the first of the chapters I’ll talk about is the one about the renal system (kidneys). Some key symptoms which may suggest renal pathology are disorders of micturition (urination), disorders of urine volume, changes in urine composition, loin pain, oedema, and hypertension. Disorders of micturition can relate to frequency, poor urinary stream (typically caused by outflow obstructions) and dysuria (pain on micturition). There are 19 different causes of frequency mentioned in a table in the chapter, so there are a lot of possible causes. Volume changes may be termed polyuria (increase in volume), oliguria (decrease-), or anuria (total loss of urine output – this is bad); it’s important to note that frequency does not necessarily imply polyuria. Blood in the urine is called haematuria, a symptom which will often cause people to seek medical attention – for good reason: “Any patient above the age of 40 years with haematuria (visible or invisible) requires urgent evaluation by a urologist to look for malignant disease of the urinary tract.” It should however be noted that red/brown urine doesn’t necessarily indicate haematuria – other common causes are drugs and vegetable dyes – and relatedly it should be mentioned that blood in the urine may not be visible (haematuria is sometimes caught as an incidental finding by dip-stick analysis of the urine). When blood is present in the urine at the start of micturition only it usually indicates urethral bleeding, whereas bleeding towards the end of micturition is indicative of bladder/prostate bleeding. In the context of kidney disease pain patterns are inconsistent, but when there’s pain it’s usually due to renal tract inflammation or obstruction (e.g. due to a kidney stone). Cancer need not cause pain: “The cardinal feature of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary tract is painless haematuria”, which may or may not be visible to the naked eye. In bladder cancer ‘local’ symptoms such as frequency and nocturia present before systemic symptoms such as weight loss, and the latter symptoms usually present late. Risk factors include smoking, occupational exposure to hydrocarbons, ionizing radiation (e.g. previous cancer treatment), prolonged immunosuppression, and bladder stones.
There are a number of inherited renal diseases, as well as a huge number of medical conditions associated with renal disease (18 of them are listed in the chapter). Aside from specific medical conditions a large number of drugs may also impact kidney function and the risk of developing renal disease. Pregnancy is a risk factor. Dietary factors may be important in some cases; for example excessive salt intake may lead to hypertension, as may alcohol, and hypertension is bad for the kidneys. Another example would be inadequate fluid intake or high intake of animal protein, both of which may promote lithiasis (stone formation). Tobacco is a significant risk factor for the development and progression of kidney disease. Of the many causes of kidney failure, diabetic renal disease is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease (-ESRD) in the Western world, according to the book accounting for 20-50% of new patients with end-stage renal disease (presumably the estimate is so broad-banded due to major cross-country differences). Another important cause is autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), which make up 10 per cent of patients with ESRD. Women have urinary tract infections (-UTI) much more often than men, and 50-60 per cent of women have at least one UTI during their lives. In males the risk has been estimated to be 5/10.000/year. It’s noted in the next chapter of the book that “Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in women, but uncommon in men under 50 years old”, but that “[o]lder men may get UTIs secondary to bladder outflow obstruction from prostatic hypertrophy”. I won’t talk much about that chapter, about the genitourinary system, as I’ve talked quite a bit about these sorts of things before when covering Holmes et al., e.g. here and here, but one other important quote is probably worth including here as well: “Seventy-five per cent of people infected with HSV [herpes simplex virus] are not aware that they have genital herpes either because their symptoms are very mild/absent or because the symptoms have been assumed to be due to something else (most commonly thrush).”
The other main chapter I’ll cover here is the chapter about the nervous system. I liked the way the author starts out the chapter – here’s a quote from the beginning of the chapter: “Inexperienced clinicians often order sophisticated (and expensive!) investigations hoping that the diagnosis may be revealed, but sadly this rarely happens. Many investigations are relatively sensitive but not necessarily disease specific”. Later on he also notes that it is his opinion that: “Electroencephalograms (EEGs) are grossly overordered. They should not be used as a diagnostic tool in epilepsy as they are relatively non-specific and non-sensitive.” I liked this stuff in part because I’m the sort of person who cares about cost-effectiveness, but also because Eysenck and Keane’s Cognitive Psychology text, part of which I read last December, contained some reasonably detailed coverage of various imaging methods used in these contexts and what you can and cannot use them for; and I think it’s highly likely that the author of the chapter is right. I may go into much more details about this kind of stuff later if I decide to cover E&K’s book, but I won’t talk about it here. One related observation worth including here is however that in the context of a seizure, something as ‘low-tech’ as an available eye-witness is often crucial (was there jerking? pallor? gaze aversion?) to make a diagnosis and distinguish between an epileptic seizure and a cardiovascular syncope (the most common diagnostic dilemma here).
Headaches are common. It’s useful to know that whereas an acute headache may be a sign of sinister pathology, chronic headaches rarely are. Acute headaches may be almost instantaneous (hyperacute), or they may develop over hours to days. Instantaneous headache may be (but of course needn’t be) due to life-threatening conditions such as subarachnoid haemorrhage, venous sinus thrombosis, cerebral haemorrhage, and phaeochromocytoma, all of which may present that way. The combination of neck stiffness and photophobia (together with headache) is called meningism and this is something that requires urgent investigation, as it may be due to meningitis or encephalitis. Muscle weakness is a common neurological symptom, and here it’s important to note that hyperacute limb weakness is usually caused by a stroke, and is most commonly unilateral (i.e. affecting e.g. only one arm or leg, rather than both), whereas bilateral weakness is a marker of spinal cord disease. Sensory symptoms may be either ‘positive’ (e.g. tingling, dysaesthesia) or negative (numbness); stroke usually causes negative symptoms, whereas various genetic or acquired disorders may also present with ‘positive’ symptoms as well. “Neuropathic pain (cf diabetes) is often lower limb predominant and described as burning, stinging or throbbing.” Relatedly: “Diabetes is the commonest cause of neuropathy in the UK; distal predominantly sensory neuropathy, diabetic amyotrophy (pain and wasting in femoral distribution), nerve entrapments (carpal tunnel syndrome), cranial neuropathy and autonomic neuropathy are relatively common complications.” As for the aforementioned strokes, they’re sometimes (in 15 per cent of cases, according to the book) preceded by a TIA (a transient ischaemic attack), a sort of ‘mini-stroke’ which causes a reversible neurological deficit lasting less than 24 hours (‘in practice much shorter duration’). A recent TIA puts you in high immediate risk of stroke, which is probably useful to know – for more details, see this link.
The nervous system deals with a lot of stuff, so a lot of things can go wrong. Autonomic nervous system disorders may cause symptoms/problems such as: sphincter disturbances (e.g. incontinence), change in sweating patterns, photophobia (when the pupil is affected), night blindness, orthostatic hypotension, dry mouth, dry eyes, erectile/ejaculatory failure, and vomiting. Specific nerves doing specific things can cause specific symptoms when they stop working the way they’re supposed to, and these sorts of symptoms are very far from limited to ‘people being unable to move their arms or legs’; neurological problems can also cause you to e.g. go blind or deaf. The distinction between monolateral (‘vascular’) and bilateral (‘neurological’) symptoms and how this distinction relate to the underlying medical cause seems to apply not only to major limbs, but also to other areas of the body – for example if you’re experiencing vision loss in both eyes it’s more often a neurological problem, whereas problems caused by retinal pathology tend to cause unilateral symptoms. On a related note, in elderly people monocular loss of vision can be a harbinger of stroke. They mention in this chapter that neurological dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) may affect liquids first, whereas a mechanical obstruction (e.g. due to a tumour) will preferentially affect solids (I mentioned this in my last post about the book). “The duration of anterograde amnesia is an extremely useful indicator of the severity of head injury.” In the last part of the chapter the author talks about various specific conditions causing neurological problems, such as Parkinson’s disease, Motor Neuron Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Myasthenia gravis, and Guillain–Barré syndrome – I won’t cover these in any detail as the book only covers them very briefly (you can google them if you’re curious).
I decided in this post to have a look at a few of the chapters in the first part(s) of the book. As earlier mentioned I lost my notes and highlights to these parts of the book due to computer trouble, making it much more difficult and time consuming to blog this stuff, but I wanted to cover some of that stuff even so because if I don’t I’ll forget the details (to the extent that I have not already – I should caution that this post provides relatively ‘lazy coverage’ as I felt it to be completely out of the question to select material from the book to talk about here using the same criteria I normally employ).
An obvious but important conclusion from the chapter on The Affective Structure of Marriage, which is a chapter that among other things covers multiple conceptual models dealing with relationship change, is that: “various models of marital change are useful because no single pathway describes changes in all, or even most, marriages. Even among couples sharing a similar outcome (e.g., divorce), there is considerable variation in the course toward that outcome. This implies that attempts to develop a single explanation or description of divorce are likely to be, at best, incomplete. Concluding that multiple models are useful is merely recognizing that there are multiple developmental processes in marriage.” Relationships may change for all sorts of reasons, and there is no full model out there which explains everything. This stuff is complicated. It’s noted in the chapter that some of the attempts people have made at trying to e.g. predict which couples divorced over a given time period turned out to perform really quite well on one sample (using longitudinal data – this is not just unsophisticated cross section analyses we’re dealing with), but then it turned out later that they perform really quite horribly on validation samples using the same type of data to predict outcomes in different couples. Similar stimuli may have different effects depending on how long people have been together. Different models deal with time frame aspects in different ways.
I’ll mention a few results from the literature covered in that chapter here. One is that couples who were initially more affectionate and less antagonistic were happier 13 years later than were other couples who were still together at that point in time but had lower initial levels of affection/higher antagonism. It’s also been found that couples which are high in antagonism early on in the relationship (‘lots of drama’) are more likely to divorce early on; disillusionment after a few years of marriage seems to be a better predictor of divorce years later, with initial affection being an important moderating variable in the sense that couples who were initially higher in affection were together for a longer period of time before they eventually divorced. Shorter relationship duration at the time of marriage seems to predict divorce. Personality characteristics such as (trait) (presumably also state-, US) anxiety and neuroticism are associated with relationship dissatisfaction and divorce risk. I should probably once again emphasize that the only reason why I’m not providing effect sizes here is that the authors do not, and so I’m not able to. Some conclusions from the chapter:
“one of the most exciting nascent trends in the marital literature involves the recognition that there is not a single unitary process leading to marital distress and divorce […]. Some couples begin marriage with lower marital satisfaction than most other couples but remain married indefinitely, whereas other couples begin marriage very satisfied but end up divorcing. Moreover, the predictors of dissatisfaction and divorce are not always the same; for instance, stable characteristics such as trait anxiety appear to be more strongly related to satisfaction than they are to divorce […]. Even the processes leading to divorce are not uniform, with some couples who eventually divorce beginning marriage with high levels of hostility and divorcing quickly, others beginning marriage with moderate amounts of both positive and negative elements before becoming quite low in affection, and still others beginning marriage with exceedingly high levels of affection that are not sustained over the early years of marriage. Also, the predictors of divorce are different for divorces that occur earlier in marriage compared with those that happen later in marriage. […] Being high in conscientiousness [for example] appears to diminish the chances that one will divorce early in marriage but does not appear to prevent eventual divorce”.
It should be noted, as they also do, that much of this research is based on what they in the book call ‘observational data’, which in this context means data obtained by actually observing the individuals, usually in a lab, and then coding specific behaviours in specific ways. They didn’t just ask people if they were affectionate towards each other; they tried to estimate whether or not they were, based on behaviours they could observe. There are problems with this sort of data and they talk about that in the chapter; for example it has been argued (I think I may have talked about this before in my coverage) that the most effective kind of support may well be invisible support (“actions that take place outside the recipients’ awareness”, or supportive actions which are provided “in such a skillful way that, although the information about the transaction is available to the recipient, the transaction is not coded as enacted support”) – and this sort of support is difficult to observe in a lab; whereas on the other hand the most visible sort of support, which is the easiest type to code by observers, may be counterproductive (such actions may provide a signal to the partner that the other party considers him/her too incompetent to handle the task on his/her own, which may lead to self-doubt etc. in the recipient), perhaps making interpretations slightly more difficult than one might think they are. A related problem seems to me to be that not providing support may in some situations be the optimal approach to take by the partner (‘my partner obviously doesn’t need my help right now, and if I were to provide support in this situation this would not be helpful’), and so such behaviours may be indicative of a strong relationship – yet that’s not how such behaviours will be coded in the studies. There are some problems here.
Next, a few observations dealing with divorce and postdivorce relationships. This data is old, but better than nothing: “Most divorced adults find another romantic partner. In the United States, the probability of cohabiting after the dissolution of first marriage is 70% after 10 years […] Census estimates project that in the United States nearly 85% of divorced people remarry […]. Although the remarriage rate is lower in other Western societies, most divorced people eventually cohabit or remarry […] It is an almost universal finding that children have more difficulty adapting to parental remarriage than do the adults.” I thought I should mention in a slightly unrelated context that I recently came across a Danish article about how children are dealt with here in the divorce context; I was not surprised to learn that women get custody in 90% of the cases – the politicians are thinking about changing this (this did surprise me), which has caused some organizations to argue that it’s a bad idea to change this state of affairs (again, not surprising). I’ve blogged US data on this stuff before – go have a look at the archives/use the search function if you’re curious, I’m too lazy to provide a link. I believe the US numbers are reasonably similar. An important observation made in the chapter is that parenting roles have evolved over time, and that the institutional setup had not really evolved with them at the time this book was written: “Child support policies have been predicated on the notion of fathers having only one set of children to support. In fact, increases in multiple marital and cohabiting relationships means that nearly 75% of remarried men have multiple sets of children to support (emotionally and financially) both inside and outside their current relationship.” It’s important to observe in this context that the proportion of all marriages which were remarriages was really high in the US, and that the remarried couples made up a big proportion of the total: “About half of all U.S. marriages are remarriages for one or both partners” (data from the U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Things may or may not be different today.
Some observations from the chapter about personal relationships in adolescence and early adulthood: “Friendships and romantic relationships are tightly interwoven in adolescence and early adulthood. Unsupervised mixed-gender peer groups during adolescence provide opportunities and supportive environments for “pairing off” between group members. By mid-adolescence, most individuals have been involved in at least one romantic relationship; by the early years of early adulthood, most are currently participating in an ongoing romantic relationship (Collins, 2003). […] Existing findings point to a shift in the qualitative characteristics of dating relationships between the ages of 15 and 17 years, and dating among early adults seems similar in key ways to dating among late adolescents. After age 17, the likelihood of being involved in a romantic relationship changes little […] Having a romantic relationship and the quality of that relationship are associated positively with romantic self-concept and, in turn, with feelings of self-worth […], and longitudinal evidence indicates that by late adolescence, self-perceived competence in romantic relationships emerges as a reliable component of general competence […]. Whether adolescent romantic relationships play a distinctive role in identity formation during adolescence is not known, although considerable speculation and some theoretical contentions imply a link […] The most widely studied patterns have to do with variations in the timing of involvement in both romantic relationships and sexual activity, typically showing that early dating and sexual activity are risk factors for current and later problem behaviors and social and emotional difficulties […] The social worlds of those involved in romantic relationships differ from those who are not because romantic partners quickly become dominant in the relationship hierarchy […]. Although romantic interconnections initially are predicated on principles of social exchange, commitment drives participants to transform this voluntary relationship into one that is more obligatory and permanent […]. Eventually, most early adults marry and reproduce, further transforming the relationship and marginalizing remaining friendships, thus effectively ending the peer group’s dominance of relationship experiences”.
And finally some data and observations from the chapter about close relationships in middle and late adulthood: “The majority of adults in the United States are married, but the proportion is smaller in old age than earlier in adulthood (ages 35 to 54 years = 71.3%, 55 to 64 years = 74.2%, and 65 or older = 56.7%), and a notable sex difference in the proportion married exists between men and women aged 65 or older (75.7% versus 42.9%, respectively). The majority of households comprise family households (68%), usually of married couples (52%), but 32% of adults live in non-family households, including the 26% who live alone [do keep in mind that many of those 26% are involved in romantic relationships as well, though the characteristics of the relationships they have are different]. Among persons aged 75 years or older, however, the proportion living alone is much higher (39.6%) because of the greater likelihood of being widowed (ages 35 to 54 years = 1.6%, 55 to 64 years = 6.7%, 65 to 74 = 19.6%, and 75 or older = 41%, U.S. Census Bureau, 2003). […] the proportion of householders with children of any age at home remains above 50% even in the 45- to 54-year-old age group (Russell, 2001). […] One of the key findings of research on the causes and consequences of relational difficulties in adulthood is that negative dimensions of interactions have stronger effects than positive ones on relationship quality and satisfaction.”
(A slightly unusual post, but I hope you’ll bear with me…)
*Someone’s sitting on death row, condemned to death for a crime he did not commit.
*A young woman just got raped.
*A childless widow near retirement age just lost most of her life savings by participating in a financial scheme she did not understand.
*A child died of AIDS.
*A man got diagnosed with ALS.
*A traffic accident killed the parents of two children, who are now orphans.
*A married woman just realized her husband of two decades has been cheating on her for a long time. She does not know what to do.
*An old man decides to end his pathetic existence and shoots himself.
*A dog starved to death because the owner neglected to take care of it.
*Some people are employed to try to minimize the number of bullets which leave the barrel of a machine gun and do not proceed to later hit a human being.
*A young man lost most of his teeth in a bad mugging.
*A guy working in a saw-mill lost his right hand due to a work accident with a chain saw.
*A child forgot to look both ways before crossing the street, and was killed by a woman whose life will never be the same again.
*A decision is reached at the family council. The father summarizes and tells his two sons that they are to kill their sister next week in order to protect the honor of the family. They all feel that this is the best option.
*Yesterday people from the government came by and took her two children away from her.
*An old man with dementia who for the last few years has had no visitors dies at the local retirement home.
*A man who’d been married to his wife for fifteen years was yesterday told that she no longer loves him, and that she wants a divorce.
*A woman is unable to sleep due to pain from a broken arm. She broke her arm in a recent violent argument with her abusive husband, who refuses to let her see a doctor. She lives in a part of the world where there are no women’s shelters, and she has no money or friends who might be able to help her.
*A long-time smoker has been feeling scared for weeks because he’s started to cough up blood and is worried that this might be something serious. He’s too afraid to see a doctor.
*A couple was just told that their new-born child has Down’s Syndrome. Before the child was born they had no idea anything might be wrong with the child.
*A Chinese man in his forties has lost weight over the last months and some of his teeth have fallen out. He’s also had stomach pain and memory problems. He’s worried that this might have something to do with his long-time work at the local battery manufacturing plant, but he can’t afford to see a doctor about it.
*A poor alcoholic went blind from drinking methanol.
*While they were on vacation abroad, their house burned down.
*A sixty-five year old woman suddenly feels the onset of the worst headache she’s ever had while out shopping with her grandchild. She’s dead before she reaches the hospital.
*Three children are praying with their mother. A major storm hit the coast last evening, and their father is a fisherman who did not return from his fishing trip yesterday.
*A young man was recently in a bar fight. The other guy had a knife. The young man is now awaiting a kidney transplant.
*Yesterday a homeless man died from hypothermia.
*The morphine can no longer block out the pain. The woman starts to scream.
*A mother is told by her adult son that after thinking things over carefully, he’s decided that he’ll never speak to her again, because of what she did.
*A taxi-driver was involved in an accident and has just learned that he’ll need a wheelchair for the rest of his life.
*A couple is told that if they don’t pay the rent they owe next week, they’ll get kicked out of their flat. They already know they’ll never be able to raise the money in time, but they don’t know what to do.
*A young man learns that one of his former classmates, whom he used to bully in middle school, has recently taken his life. He feels partly responsible.
*A prostitute was beaten up by one of her clients.
(I’ve been thinking about writing/publishing ‘inspirational short stories based on real-life events’ for a while…) (No, not really…)