Stuff we don’t know much about (/yet?) (…/a continuing series?)
“Water is essential for maintaining life on Earth but can also serve as a media for many pathogenic organisms, causing a high disease burden globally. However, how the global distribution of water-associated infectious pathogens/diseases looks like and how such distribution is related to possible social and environmental factors remain largely unknown. In this study, we compiled a database on distribution, biology, and epidemiology of water-associated infectious diseases and collected data on population density, annual accumulated temperature, surface water areas, average annual precipitation, and per capita GDP at the global scale. From the database we extracted reported outbreak events from 1991 to 2008 and developed models to explore the association between the distribution of these outbreaks and social and environmental factors. […]
Worldwide, water-associated infectious diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality , , . A conservative estimate indicated that 4.0% of global deaths and 5.7% of the global disease burden (in DALYs) were attributable to a small subset of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WSH) related infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, schistosomiasis, trachoma, ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm infections , , . Although unknown, the actual disease burden attributable to water-associated pathogens is expected to be much higher. A total of 1415 species of microorganisms have been reported to be pathogenic, among which approximately 348 are water-associated, causing 115 infectious diseases .Yet, their distribution and associated factors at the global scale remain largely unexplored. […]
The population density was shown to be a significant risk factor for reported outbreaks of all categories of water-associated infectious diseases and the probability of outbreak occurrence increased with the population density. The accumulated temperature was a significant risk factor for water-related diseases only. The analysis suggested that occurrence of water-washed diseases had significantly inverse relationship with surface water areas. Such inverse relationship was also observed between the average annual rainfall and water-borne diseases (including water-carried) and water-related diseases.”
From Global Distribution of Outbreaks of Water-Associated Infectious Diseases by Yang, LeJeune et al.
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