Wikipedia articles of interest
“Herbig–Haro objects (HH) are small patches of nebulosity associated with newly born stars, and are formed when gas ejected by young stars collides with clouds of gas and dust nearby at speeds of several hundred kilometres per second. Herbig–Haro objects are ubiquitous in star-forming regions, and several are often seen around a single star, aligned along its rotational axis.
HH objects are transient phenomena, lasting not more than a few thousand years.”
2. Sparkling wine production. (File under: So much stuff to know, so much you don’t know, can’t ever know and don’t know that you don’t know.)
“Heterosis, or hybrid vigor, or outbreeding enhancement, is the improved or increased function of any biological quality in a hybrid offspring. It is the occurrence of a genetically superior offspring from mixing the genes of its parents.
Heterosis is the opposite of inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression leads to offspring with deleterious traits due to homozygosity. […] The inverse of heterosis, when a hybrid inherits traits from its parents that are not fully compatible, with deleterious results, is outbreeding depression.”
4. Copper. This is a good article (don’t take my word for it, the wikipedia community has identified it as such..). Some bits from the article:
“Copper(II) ions are water-soluble, where they function at low concentration as bacteriostatic substances, fungicides, and wood preservatives. In sufficient amounts, they are poisonous to higher organisms; at lower concentrations it is an essential trace nutrient to all higher plant and animal life. The main areas where copper is found in animals are tissues, liver, muscle and bone.” […]
“in 2005, Chile was the top mine producer of copper with at least one-third world share followed by the United States, Indonesia and Peru.” […]
“Copper occurs naturally as native copper and was known to some of the oldest civilizations on record. It has a history of use that is at least 10,000 years old, and estimates of its discovery place it at 9000 BC in the Middle East; a copper pendant was found in northern Iraq that dates to 8700 BC. There is evidence that gold and iron were the only metals used by humans before copper. Copper smelting is known to have occurred since 5500 BC in the Balkans by a chisel from Prokuplje in Serbia. It was invented independently in other parts of the world: China before 2800 BC, the Andes around 2000 BC, Central America around 600 AD and West Africa around 900 AD.” […]
“The Great Copper Mountain was a mine in Falun, Sweden, that operated from the 10th century to 1992. It produced two thirds of Europe’s copper demand in the 17th century and helped fund many of Sweden’s wars during that time. It was referred to as the nation’s treasury; Sweden had a copper backed currency.” […]
“The protein hemocyanin is the oxygen carrier in most mollusks and some arthropods such as the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus). Because hemocyanin is blue, these organisms have blue blood, not the red blood found in organisms that rely on hemoglobin” […]
There were a lot of those. Many links to interesting people and places.
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